WINSTON CHURCHILL (1874-1965)
He was the British Prime Minister during the Second World War. In this extract from a speech given in 1946, furthermore, the year after the war ended, Churchill used the phrase „iron curtain“ to describe the border which ideologically and physically, as well, divided the East and the West.
KING EDWARD VIII (1894-1972)
He was the only British king ever to abdicate. Edward had been king for only eleven months, while he announced his decision to give up the throne in order to marry an American divorcee, Wallis Simpson.
QUEEN VICTORIA (1837 – 1901)
Becoming Queen at the age of eighteen, Queen Victoria was the longest reigning English monarch. With Prince Albert she had nine children, many of whom married into European royalty. Queen Victoria was strongly in favour of an imperial Britain. In 1887, she became Empress of India, and her empire extended to include Canada, Australia, India, New Zealand and large parts of Africa. At home, she witnessed huge economic expansion during the industrial revolution
- British personalities
- Viz. 5. History of UK – personalities.
- Lewis Hamilton – is a British Formula One racing driver, he is a world champion.
- Andy Murray – famous tennis player, he won Wimbledon.
- David Beckham – famous football player.
- Wayne Rooney – footballer, he plays for national team and for Manchester United.
- Frank Lampard – football player, he plays for NY City.
- Elizabeth II. – She has been Queen of the UK, Canada, Australia and NZ, she is head of the Commonwealth, head of the Church. She is ruling for 65 years.
- Prime ministers
- David Cameron – he is British politician, he was the Prime Minister from 2010 to 2016.
- Theresa may – she is the Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party.
- Charlie Chaplin – he was an English comic actor, filmmaker and composer. He played in silent films. His famous film is The Great Dictator.
- Isaac Newton – he was an English mathematician and physicist. He wrote a book where he described the laws of motion and universal gravitation.
In our country we have a lot of famous people.
Václav Havel was one of the first spokesman for Charter 77 and a leading figure of the Velvet Revolution of 1989. What is more, then he became president and stayed in the presidential office until 2003. Unfortunatelly, then became president of the Czech Republic Václav Klaus.
A leader of the „new wave“ of Czechoslovak cinema in the 1960s. Luckily, he is considered one of the most important film directors in the world today. Obviously, for his best work, he received Oscars for his well-known Amadeus film. He also directed a film version of the musical Hair.
JAROSLAV HEYROVSKÝ AND JAROSLAV SEIFERT
Both Jaroslav Heyrovský and Jaroslav Seifert won the Nobel Prize. Proffesor Jaroslav Heyrovský was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1959, for the invetion and development of the polarographic method. Subsequently, in 1984 was a poet Jaroslav Seifert, awarded the Nobel Prize in LIterature. Because of his poems, he celebrated there our capital city Prague.
MILADA HORÁKOVÁ (1901 – 1950)
She is regarded as a symbol of anti‑communist resistance for her courageous attitude during her trial. After the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi in 1939, she joined the underground resistance movement but was arrested by the Gestapo in 1940. She was sentenced to death and executed in 1950 in a communist trial.
- Czech personalities
- Jaromír Jágr – famous hockey player.
- Dominik Hašek – goalkeeper in hockey.
- Martina Navrátilová – tennis player, she won Wimbledon nine times.
- Emil Zátopek – runner.
- Dana Zátopková – javelin – thrower.
- Jan Železný – javelin-throwers, Olympic gold medallist.
- Roman Šebrle – the first decathlete ever to break 9000 points.
- Lukáš Krpálek – judoka, he won Olympics gold medal in 2016 in Rio.
- Věra Čáslavská – she was gymnast, she won Olympics gold medal.
- Petr Čech – famous goalkeeper in football.
- Petra Kvitová – famous tennis player, she won Wimbledon.
- Ivan Lendl – tennis player.
- Gabriela Koukalová – biathlons, Olympic medallist.
- Petr Koukal – badminton player, he took part Olympic games.
- Karel Čapek – writer, novelist, journalist, he coined word Robot (R.U.R.).
- Jaroslav Seifrt – writer, he won Nobel Prize for Literature.
- Alois Jirásek – he was a writer, author of many historical novels and plays. He was also a secondary grammar teacher
- Milan Kundera – novelist, he reached international fame with his novels The Unbearable Lightness of Being and Immortality.
- Antonín Dvořák – composer (Slavonic Dancers– Slovanské tance, From the New World – Novosvětská.
- Bedřich Smetana – composer (Vltava, The Bartered Bride).
- Miloš Forman – director, famous films are Amadeus, One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest.
- Jan Hřebejk – director, his famous films are Cosy Dens, Big Beast and I’m all good.
- Václav Havel – first president after the fall of communism, first president of the independent Czech Republic.
- T. G. Masaryk – he became the first president of CSR, he defended CSR during WWI.
- Klement Gottwald – he was the first communist president after communist putsch.
- Emil Hácha – he was president during the German Occupation.
- Charles IV. – he was King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, one of the most important rulers. He reigned in 14th century. He chose Prague as capital and established lot of sites (Charles Bridge, Charles University).
- Wenceslas I. – he was duke of Bohemia, after he was murdered he was proclaimed saint.
- Mikoláš Aleš – he was famous Czech painter.
- Otto Wichterle – chemist and the inventor of the modern contact lens,
- Jan Evangelista Purkyně – physiologist who first recognised the individuality of fingerprints.
- Jaroslav Heyrovský – he won the Nobel prize for Chemistry for invention polarographic method.
- Jan Palach – he was a student of history at Charles University. He committed self-immolation as a political protest against the end of the Prague Spring resulting from the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies.
- Jan Opletal – he was a student of Medical Faculty of the Charles University. He was killed in an anti-Nazi demonstration during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
- Vladimír Remek – cosmonaut.
- Jan Hus – he was religious reformer, who was burned at the stake in 1415.
MARTIN LUTHER KING (1929-1968)
He was a leader of the American Civil Rights movement who was assassinated in Memphis in April 1968. He spoke, which he made in 1963, about his dream of a future when all people would be treated equally.
He was an American singer, musician and actor, as well. Elvis Presley became one of the most influential cultural icons of a generation. Moreover, nowadays he is commonly referred to as the „The King of Rock ‚n‘ Roll“. Unfortunatelly he died at the age of 42. Presley’s home named Gracelnd was opened to a public in the 1980’s, what is more, it attracts over a half million visitors every year.
ERNEST HEMINGWAY (1899-1961)
He was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and
- US personalities
- Viz. 6. US history
- Tiger Woods – golf player
- Michael Jordan – basketball player
- Michael Phelps – swimmer,
- Actors and singers
- Tom Cruize – actor.
- Brad Pitt – actor.
- Marilyn Monroe – she was an American actress and model. Famous for playing comic “dumb blonde” characters.
- Frank Sinatra – was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century.
- Elvis Presley – was an American singer and actor, he is often referred to as the “King of Rock and Roll”, or simply “the King”.
- Madonna – she is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman. Referred to as the “Queen of Pop”, Madonna is often cited as an influence by other artists.
- Barack Obama – he was first afro American president.
- George Bush – 43th US president.